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Crazy and versatile but always protective by your side PotatoKing , 25 y. I am Leo, cm 6' 2'' , kg lbs. As cliche as it is, I value intelligence and a sense of humor. I appreciate art in all forms. Tattoos and piercings are painfully good. Print media and local residents recommend that one refer to non-Hawaiians as "locals of Hawaii" or "people of Hawaii". Hawaiian mythology comprises the legends, historical tales, and sayings of the ancient Hawaiian people. It is considered a variant of a more general Polynesian mythology that developed a unique character for several centuries before circa It is associated with the Hawaiian religion , which was officially suppressed in the 19th century but was kept alive by some practitioners to the modern day.
Polynesian mythology is the oral traditions of the people of Polynesia, a grouping of Central and South Pacific Ocean island archipelagos in the Polynesian triangle together with the scattered cultures known as the Polynesian outliers. Polynesians speak languages that descend from a language reconstructed as Proto-Polynesian that was probably spoken in the area around Tonga and Samoa in around BCE.
Prior to the 15th century, Polynesian people migrated east to the Cook Islands , and from there to other island groups such as Tahiti and the Marquesas. The Polynesian languages are part of the Austronesian language family. Many are close enough in terms of vocabulary and grammar to be mutually intelligible. There are also substantial cultural similarities between the various groups, especially in terms of social organization, childrearing, horticulture, building and textile technologies.
Their mythologies in particular demonstrate local reworkings of commonly shared tales. There are many Hawaiian state parks. Hawaiian magazines include Hana Hou! The music of Hawaii includes traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock and hip hop. Hawaii's musical contributions to the music of the United States are out of proportion to the state's small size.
Styles such as slack-key guitar are well known worldwide, while Hawaiian-tinged music is a frequent part of Hollywood soundtracks. Hawaii also made a major contribution to country music with the introduction of the steel guitar. Traditional Hawaiian folk music is a major part of the state's musical heritage. The Hawaiian people have inhabited the islands for centuries and have retained much of their traditional musical knowledge. Their music is largely religious in nature, and includes chanting and dance music.
Hawaiian music has had an enormous impact on the music of other Polynesian islands ; according to Peter Manuel, the influence of Hawaiian music a "unifying factor in the development of modern Pacific musics". Surfing has been a central part of Polynesian culture for centuries. Since the late 19th century, Hawaii has become a major site for surfists from around the world. Tourism is an important part of the Hawaiian economy. In , according to state government data, there were over 6. The major holidays are the most popular times for outsiders to visit, especially in the winter months.
Substantial numbers of Japanese tourists still visit the islands but have now been surpassed by Chinese and Koreans due to the collapse of the value of the Yen and the weak Japanese economy. The average Japanese stays only 5 days while other Asians spend over 9. Hawaii hosts numerous cultural events. The annual Merrie Monarch Festival is an international Hula competition. Under the state's plan, businesses are required to provide insurance to employees who work more than twenty hours per week.
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Heavy regulation of insurance companies helps reduce the cost to employers. Due in part to heavy emphasis on preventive care, Hawaiians require hospital treatment less frequently than the rest of the United States, while total health care expenses measured as a percentage of state GDP are substantially lower. Hawaii has the only school system within the U. Policy decisions are made by the fourteen-member state Board of Education , which sets policy and hires the superintendent of schools, who oversees the state Department of Education.
Public elementary, middle and high school test scores in Hawaii are below national averages on tests mandated under the No Child Left Behind Act. The Hawaii Board of Education requires all eligible students to take these tests and report all student test scores. This may have unbalanced the results that reported in August that of schools across the state, failed to reach federal minimum performance standards in mathematics and reading.
Hawaii has the highest rates of private school attendance in the nation. Pacific Buddhist Academy , the second Buddhist high school in the U. Independent and charter schools can select their students, while the public schools are open to all students in their district. The Kamehameha Schools are the only schools in the U. Kona hosts the University of the Nations , which is not an accredited university. A system of state highways encircles each main island. Narrow, winding roads and congestion in populated places can slow traffic. Each major island has a public bus system.
HIK , is the major commercial aviation hub of Hawaii. The commercial aviation airport offers intercontinental service to North America, Asia, Australia and Oceania. Hawaiian Airlines , Mokulele Airlines and go! Island Air and Pacific Wings serve smaller airports. These airlines also provide air freight services between the islands.
On May 30, , the airport was officially renamed as the Daniel K. Until air passenger services began in the s,  private boats were the sole means of traveling between the islands. Seaflite operated hydrofoils between the major islands in the mids. Protests and legal problems over environmental impact statements ended the service, though the company operating Superferry has expressed a wish to recommence ferry services in the future.
At one time Hawaii had a network of railroads on each of the larger islands that transported farm commodities and passengers. The standard gauge in the U. Traffic on this line was busy enough for signals to be used to facilitate movement of trains and to require wigwag signals at some railroad crossings for the protection of motorists. The main line was officially abandoned in , although part of it was bought by the U.
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Navy and operated until The Governor of Hawaii officially resides at Washington Place. Kamehameha III chose the largest city, Honolulu, as his capital because of its natural harbor—the present-day Honolulu Harbor. Hawaii comprises five counties: Hawaii has the fewest local governments among U. All local governments are generally administered at the county level. The only incorporated area in the state is Honolulu County , a consolidated city—county that governs the entire island of Oahu. The mayors are all elected in nonpartisan elections.
Kalawao County has no elected government,  and as mentioned above there are no local school districts and instead all local public education is administered at the state level by the Hawaii Department of Education. The remaining local governments are special districts. The state government of Hawaii is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from the kingdom era of Hawaiian history. As codified in the Constitution of Hawaii , there are three branches of government: The executive branch is led by the Governor of Hawaii , who is assisted by the Lieutenant Governor of Hawaii , both of whom are elected on the same ticket.
The governor is the only state public official elected statewide; all others are appointed by the governor. The lieutenant governor acts as the Secretary of State. The governor and lieutenant governor oversee twenty agencies and departments from offices in the State Capitol. The official residence of the governor is Washington Place. The legislative branch consists of the bicameral Hawaii State Legislature , which is composed of the member Hawaii House of Representatives led by the Speaker of the House , and the member Hawaii Senate led by the President of the Senate.
The Legislature meets at the State Capitol. The unified judicial branch of Hawaii is the Hawaii State Judiciary. Representative Colleen Hanabusa HI Representative Tulsi Gabbard HI Hawaii is represented in the United States Congress by two senators and two representatives. As of [update] , all four seats are held by Democrats. Colleen Hanabusa won a special election for the 1st congressional district representing southeastern Oahu, including central Honolulu, on November 8, to finish the term of Rep.
Mark Takai who died July 20, Tulsi Gabbard represents the 2nd congressional district , representing the rest of the state, which is largely rural and semi-rural. He was appointed to the office on December 26, , by Governor Neil Abercrombie , following the death of former senator Daniel Inouye. The state's junior senator is Mazie Hirono , the former representative from the second congressional district.
Hirono is the first female Asian American senator and the first Buddhist senator. Hawaii incurred the biggest seniority shift between the th and th Congresses. The state went from a delegation consisting of senators who were first and twenty-first in seniority [e] to their respective replacements, relative newcomers Schatz and Hirono. In Hawaii's statehood tenure, only Minnesota has supported Republican candidates fewer times in presidential elections. Hawaii hasn't elected a Republican to represent the state in the U.
Senate since Hiram Fong in ; since , both of the state's U. Senators have been Democrats. Every county supported the Democratic candidate. In , favorite son candidate senator Hiram Fong of Hawaii sought the Republican presidential nomination, while Patsy Mink ran in the Oregon primary in Honolulu-born Barack Obama , then serving as United States Senator from Illinois , was elected the 44th President of the United States on November 4, and was re-elected for a second term on November 6, He was the third Hawaii-born candidate to seek the nomination of a major party and the first presidential nominee from Hawaii.
While Hawaii is internationally recognized as a state of the United States while also being broadly accepted as such in mainstream understanding, the legality of this status has been questioned in U. District Court,  the U. Political organizations seeking some form of sovereignty for Hawaii have been active since the late 19th century.
Generally, their focus is on self-determination and self-governance , either for Hawaii as an independent nation in many proposals, for "Hawaiian nationals" descended from subjects of the Hawaiian Kingdom or declaring themselves as such by choice , or for people of whole or part native Hawaiian ancestry in an indigenous " nation to nation " relationship akin to tribal sovereignty with US federal recognition of Native Hawaiians. In the s , it was found that the large majority of Hawaiian residents opposed the Akaka Bill. The Hawaiian sovereignty movement views the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii in as illegal, and views the subsequent annexation of Hawaii by the United States as illegal; the movement seeks some form of greater autonomy for Hawaii, such as free association or independence from the United States.
The Apology Resolution passed by US Congress in is cited as a major impetus by the movement for Hawaiian sovereignty.
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The Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum. Hawaii is making use of its long tradition of involvement with people overseas through international exchanges in areas such as the economy, culture, sports and education. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Hawaiki or Kawaii. This article is about the U. For the island for which it is named, see Hawaii island. For other uses, see Hawaii disambiguation. State of the United States of America. Endemism in the Hawaiian Islands and List of invasive plant species in Hawaii.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Hawaii locations by per capita income. Culture of the Native Hawaiians. Customs and etiquette in Hawaii. List of Hawaiian state parks. Hawaii Prepaid Health Care Act. Hawai'i Department of Education.
List of elementary schools in Hawaii , List of middle schools in Hawaii , and List of high schools in Hawaii. List of colleges and universities in Hawaii. List of counties in Hawaii. State agencies of Hawaii. Politics of Hawaii , Political party strength in Hawaii , and Hawaiian sovereignty movement. Hawaiian sovereignty movement , List of Hawaiian sovereignty movement groups , and Legal status of Hawaii. This section contains what may be an unencyclopedic or excessive gallery of images.
Galleries containing indiscriminate images of the article subject are discouraged ; please help improve the section by reducing indiscriminate gallery sections or by moving relevant images beside adjacent text, in accordance with the Manual of Style on use of images. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Hawaii portal United States portal. Hawaii resident is the preferred local form to refer to state residents in general regardless of ethnicity.
Hawaii may also be used adjectivally. The Associated Press Stylebook , 42nd ed. In contexts where "to be" is used in General American , "to stay" is preferred. Senator Daniel Akaka , who ranked 21st of the Senate's one hundred members, retired in January after serving twenty-three years in the Senate. Retrieved August 5, Retrieved December 9, Archived from the original on January 16, Retrieved May 6, Retrieved October 20, United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original on October 15, Retrieved October 21, Mauna Kea is also the tallest mountain on Earth when measured from base to summit.
Retrieved April 29, Archived from the original on December 30, Retrieved February 24, The asterisk preceding the word signifies that it is a reconstructed word form. University of Hawaii Press. The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Hawaii Legislative Reference Bureau. Retrieved March 18, Archived from the original on June 18, Retrieved April 16, Image of the Day".
Cited in "Hawaiian Encyclopedia: Retrieved June 20, Retrieved July 3, Retrieved 1 December Retrieved November 5, Retrieved May 5, Geological Survey Fact Sheet ". Archived from the original on March 7, Retrieved November 12, Submarine mass movements and their consequences: Journal of Geophysical Research. Archived from the original on March 18, Retrieved October 31, Retrieved December 15, Retrieved December 17, Retrieved July 15, Archived from the original on September 30, Retrieved February 2, In any event, gold was present along the river in huge quantities.
By the end of August, all of Bonanza Creek had been claimed by miners. He discovered new sources of gold there, which would prove to be even richer than those on Bonanza. Despite the winter, many prospectors immediately left for the Klondike by dog-sled, eager to reach the region before the best claims were taken.
In the Klondike stampede, an estimated , people tried to reach the Klondike goldfields, of whom only around 30, to 40, eventually did. It began on July 15, , in San Francisco and was spurred further two days later in Seattle , when the first of the early prospectors returned from the Klondike, bringing with them large amounts of gold on the ships Excelsior and Portland.
Various factors lay behind this sudden mass response. Economically, the news had reached the US at the height of a series of financial recessions and bank failures in the s. The gold standard of the time tied paper money to the production of gold and shortages towards the end of the 19th century meant that gold dollars were rapidly increasing in value ahead of paper currencies and being hoarded.
Psychologically, the Klondike, as historian Pierre Berton describes, was "just far enough away to be romantic and just close enough to be accessible. A worldwide publicity campaign engineered largely by Erastus Brainerd , a Seattle newspaperman, helped establish the city as the premier supply centre and the departure point for the gold fields.
The prospectors came from many nations, although an estimated majority of 60 to 80 percent were Americans or recent immigrants to America. Some stampeders were famous: John McGraw , the former governor of Washington joined, together with the prominent lawyer and sportsman A. Frederick Burnham , a well-known American scout and explorer, arrived from Africa, only to be called back to take part in the Second Boer War. Seattle and San Francisco competed fiercely for business during the rush, with Seattle winning the larger share of trade.
Wood, the mayor of Seattle, who resigned and formed a company to transport prospectors to the Klondike. Clothing, equipment, food, and medicines were all sold as "Klondike" goods, allegedly designed for the north-west. The Klondike could be reached only by the Yukon River, either upstream from its delta, downstream from its head, or from somewhere in the middle through its tributaries.
River boats could navigate the Yukon in the summer from the delta until a point called Whitehorse, above the Klondike.
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Travel in general was made difficult by both the geography and climate. Aids for the travellers to carry their supplies varied; some had brought dogs, horses, mules, or oxen, whereas others had to rely on carrying their equipment on their backs or on sleds pulled by hand. From Seattle or San Francisco, prospectors could travel by sea up the coast to the ports of Alaska.
It led to the ports of Dyea and Skagway plus ports of nearby trails. The sudden increase in demand encouraged a range of vessels to be pressed into service including old paddle wheelers , fishing boats, barges, and coal ships still full of coal dust. All were overloaded and many sank. It was possible to sail all the way to the Klondike, first from Seattle across the northern Pacific to the Alaskan coast. Michael , at the Yukon River delta, a river boat could then take the prospectors the rest of the way up the river to Dawson, often guided by one of the Native Koyukon people who lived near St.
In , 1, travellers attempted this route but the vast majority were caught along the river when the region iced over in October. Most of the prospectors landed at the southeast Alaskan towns of Dyea and Skagway, both located at the head of the natural Lynn Canal at the end of the Inside Passage. Those who landed at Skagway made their way over the White Pass before cutting across to Bennett Lake. An alternative toll road suitable for wagons was eventually constructed and this, combined with colder weather that froze the muddy ground, allowed the White Pass to reopen, and prospectors began to make their way into Canada.
Those who landed at Dyea, Skagway's neighbour town, travelled the Chilkoot Trail and crossed its pass to reach Lake Lindeman, which fed into Lake Bennett at the head of the Yukon River. As on the White Pass trail, supplies needed to be broken down into smaller packages and carried in relay. Tlingits or, less commonly, Tagish.
Entrepreneurs began to provide solutions as the winter progressed. Steps were cut into the ice at the Chilkoot Pass which could be used for a daily fee, this 1, step staircase becoming known as the "Golden Steps". A horse at the bottom turned a wheel, which pulled a rope running to the top and back; freight was loaded on sledges pulled by the rope. After many boats were wrecked and several hundred people died, the North-West Mounted Police NWMP introduced safety rules, vetting the boats carefully and forbidding women and children to travel through the rapids.
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Klondikers sailing toward Dawson on the upper Yukon River, There were a few more trails established during from South-east Alaska to the Yukon River. One was the Dalton trail: The Takou route started from Juneau and went north-east to Teslin Lake.
From here, it followed a river to the Yukon, where it met the Dyea and Skagway route at a point halfway to the Klondike. Finally, there was the Stikine route starting from the port of Wrangell further south-east of Skagway. This route went up the uneasy Stikine River to Glenora, the head of navigation.
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An alternative to the South-east Alaskan ports were the All-Canadian routes, so-called because they mostly stayed on Canadian soil throughout their journey. Three more routes started from Edmonton , Alberta ; these were not much better — barely trails at all — despite being advertised as "the inside track" and the "back door to the Klondike". Chalmers to build a trail, which became known as the Klondike Trail or Chalmers Trail. One went by boat along rivers and overland to the Yukon River system at Pelly River and from there to Dawson.
An estimated 1, travellers took these three routes, of whom only arrived, some taking up to 18 months to make the journey. An equivalent to the All-Canadian routes was the "All-American route", which aimed to reach the Yukon from the port of Valdez , which lay further along the Alaskan coast from Skagway. In practice, the huge Valdez glacier that stood between the port and the Alaskan interior proved almost insurmountable and only managed to climb it; by , the cold and scurvy was causing many deaths amongst the rest.
Their expedition was forced to turn back the same way they had come, with only four men surviving. Early on in the gold rush, the US Army sent a small detachment to Circle City, in case intervention was required in the Klondike, while the Canadian government considered excluding all American prospectors from the Yukon Territory. American businessmen complained that their right to a monopoly on regional trade was being undermined, while the Canadian public demanded action against the American miners.
The North-West Mounted Police set up control posts at the borders of the Yukon Territory or, where that was disputed, at easily controlled points such as the Chilkoot and White Passes. This last task was particularly unpopular with American prospectors, who faced paying an average of 25 percent of the value of their goods and supplies. Of the estimated 30, to 40, people who reached Dawson City during the gold rush, only around 15, to 20, finally became prospectors.
Of these, no more than 4, struck gold and only a few hundred became rich. Geologically, the region was permeated with veins of gold, forced to the surface by volcanic action and then worn away by the action of rivers and streams, leaving nuggets and gold dust in deposits known as placer gold. Initially, miners had assumed that all the gold would be along the existing creeks, and it was not until late in that the hilltops began to be mined. Mining began with clearing the ground of vegetation and debris.
In the sub-Arctic climate of the Klondike, a layer of hard permafrost lay only 6 feet 1. The process was repeated until the gold was reached. In theory, no support of the shaft was necessary because of the permafrost although in practice sometimes the fire melted the permafrost and caused collapses. In the summer, water would be used to sluice and pan the dirt, separating out the heavier gold from gravel. Instead, these mines used rockers, boxes that moved back and forth like a cradle, to create the motion needed for separation.
Successful mining took time and capital, particularly once most of the timber around the Klondike had been cut down. Under Canadian law, miners first had to get a license, either when they arrived at Dawson or en route from Victoria in Canada. Should the prospector leave the claim for more than three days without good reason, another miner could make a claim on the land. Claims could be bought. However, their price depended on whether they had been yet proved to contain gold.
The less fortunate or less well funded prospectors rapidly found themselves destitute. Some chose to sell their equipment and return south. The massive influx of prospectors drove the formation of boom towns along the routes of the stampede, with Dawson City in the Klondike the largest. Dawson remained relatively lawful, protected by the Canadian NWMP, which meant that gambling and prostitution were accepted while robbery and murder were kept low. By contrast, especially the port of Skagway under US jurisdiction in Southeast Alaska became infamous for its criminal underworld. The ports of Dyea and Skagway, through which most of the prospectors entered, were tiny settlements before the gold rush, each consisting of only one log cabin.
Skagway became famous in international media; the author John Muir described the town as "a nest of ants taken into a strange country and stirred up by a stick". In late summer Skagway and Dyea fell under the control of Jefferson Randolph "Soapy" Smith and his men, who arrived from Seattle shortly after Skagway began to expand. Other towns also boomed. Wrangell , port of the Stikine route and boom town from earlier gold rushes, increased in size again, with robberies, gambling and nude female dancing commonplace.
Dawson City was created in the early days of the Klondike gold rush, when prospector Joe Ladue and shopkeeper Arthur Harper decided to make a profit from the influx to the Klondike. In the spring of , Dawson's population rose further to 30, as stampeders arrived over the passes. The newly built town proved highly vulnerable to fire.
Houses were made of wood, heated with stoves and lit by candles and oil lamps ; water for emergencies was wanting, especially in the frozen winters. The remoteness of Dawson proved an ongoing problem for the supply of food, and as the population grew to 5, in , this became critical. Prices remained high in Dawson and supply fluctuated according to the season. Under these conditions scurvy , a potentially fatal illness caused by the lack of vitamin C, proved a major problem in Dawson City, particularly during the winter where supply of fresh food was not available.
English prospectors gave it the local name of "Canadian black leg", on account of the unpleasant effects of the condition. Despite these challenges, the huge quantities of gold coming through Dawson City encouraged a lavish lifestyle amongst the richer prospectors. Saloons were typically open 24 hours a day, with whiskey the standard drink. Swiftwater Bill Gates , a gambler and ladies man who rarely went anywhere without wearing silk and diamonds, was one of them. To impress a woman who liked eggs—then an expensive luxury—he was alleged to have bought all the eggs in Dawson, had them boiled and fed them to dogs.
Unlike its American equivalents, Dawson City was a law-abiding town. Saloons and other establishments closed promptly at midnight on Saturday, and anyone caught working on Sunday was liable to be fined or set to chopping firewood for the NWMP.