The Dating Game is an ABC television show. It first aired on December 20, and was the first of many shows created and packaged by Chuck Barris from.
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Love Connection is an American television dating game show , hosted by Andy Cohen , in which singles attempt to connect with a compatible partner of the opposite gender. Originally hosted by Chuck Woolery , the show debuted in syndication on September 19, , and ended on July 1, , after 2, shows. Reruns continued to air until September 8, In , the series returned on Fox with Andy Cohen hosting. On August 10, , Fox renewed the series for another season. Love Connection' s main premise was to arrange dates for couples. A guest appeared on the show after going on a date with one of three contestants, having chosen on the basis of the contestants' videotaped profiles.
After the date, the televised appearance was scheduled. Love Connection tapings took place before a live studio audience. Woolery introduced the guest and show excerpts from the three candidates' videos. The studio audience then secretly voted on which candidate they preferred for the guest. In the —99 version, home viewers voted online and were included in the tally. The guest then revealed whom he or she had actually dated, and the date joined the conversation from backstage via closed-circuit television camera. Woolery led the guest and date to discuss their time together.
If they both agreed that the date had been successful, the couple would be reunited onstage; otherwise, the date's participation in the show ended. Woolery then revealed the vote result; if the guest had had a successful date with the vote winner, Woolery congratulated the couple for making a "love connection," and they would usually but not always accept the offered prize of a second date at the show's expense. After a successful date, the guest was always offered another date with that person.
However, if the vote winner was one of the other contestants, the guest could choose a date with the vote winner, regardless of the success of the first date. In addition, if the guest had already unsuccessfully dated the audience pick, the guest could choose to go on a date with either of the other contestants.
If a second date took place, the couple would be invited back for a second interview at a later taping. Two or three segments usually aired per show. In a variation that aired on Fridays, a bachelor or bachelorette who had not yet chosen a date made an appearance and allow the studio audience to make the choice for him or her, based on video excerpts. The couple would report back in the usual fashion several weeks later. If the couple hit it off, they were entitled to a second date at the show's expense.
If not, the contestant could choose between the two losing candidates for the second date. In the revival, the guest appeared on the show after having gone on a date with each of the three contestants, and all three were interviewed from backstage after the video intros and audience vote. This version added a segment where guests and contestants rate their first impressions of each other's looks on a scale of 1—10; however, some contestants have acknowledged basing this rating in part on factors other than physical looks, such as punctuality or fashion sense.
In season 1, the guest automatically received the prize if the audience vote matched his or her choice; otherwise, the guest was given the option to instead spend the overnight date with the vote winner and thereby receive the monetary prize. Other hoax shows are not intended for comedic effect and do not include actors.
In some shows, a person of wealth or power has their identity disguised so that they can go among less-privileged people in order to see them in their natural state and judge their worthiness for largesse; the other participants are not told the true nature of the show during filming. Popular examples include Undercover Boss though that show is also intended to let bosses see their business more accurately and The Secret Millionaire.
Other shows, though not hoax shows per se, have offered misleading information to some cast members in order to add a wrinkle to the competition. Another subgenre of reality television is "reality competition", "reality playoffs ", or so-called "reality game shows," which follow the format of non-tournament elimination contests.
In many cases, participants are removed until only one person or team remains, who is then declared the winner. Usually this is done by eliminating participants one at a time or sometimes two at a time, as an episodic twist due to the number of contestants involved and the length of a given season , through either disapproval voting or by voting for the most popular to win. Voting is done by the viewing audience, the show's own participants, a panel of judges, or some combination of the three.
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A well-known example of a reality-competition show is the globally syndicated Big Brother , in which cast members live together in the same house, with participants removed at regular intervals by either the viewing audience or, in the American version, by the participants themselves. There remains disagreement over whether talent-search shows such as the Idol series, the Got Talent series and the Dancing with the Stars series are truly reality television, or just newer incarnations of shows such as Star Search.
Although the shows involve a traditional talent search, the shows follow the reality-competition conventions of removing one or more contestants in every episode, allowing the public to vote on who is removed, and interspersing performances with video clips showing the contestants' "back stories", their thoughts about the competition, their rehearsals and unguarded behind-the-scenes moments. Additionally, there is a good deal of unscripted interaction shown between contestants and judges. In addition, there is more interaction between contestants and hosts, and in some cases they feature reality-style contestant competition or elimination as well.
Dating game show
These factors, as well as these shows' rise in global popularity at the same time as the arrival of the reality craze, have led to such shows often being grouped under both the reality television and game show umbrellas. Some reality shows that aired mostly during the early s, such as Popstars , Making the Band and Project Greenlight , devoted the first part of the season to selecting a winner, and the second part to showing that person or group of people working on a project.
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Dating-based competition shows follow a contestant choosing one out of a group of suitors. Over the course of either a single episode or an entire season, suitors are eliminated until only the contestant and the final suitor remains. In the early s, this type of reality show dominated the other genres on the major U. In Married by America , contestants were chosen by viewer voting. This is one of the older variants of the format; shows such as The Dating Game that date to the s had similar premises though each episode was self-contained, and not the serial format of more modern shows.
In this category, the competition revolves around a skill that contestants were pre-screened for. Competitors perform a variety of tasks based on that skill, are judged, and are then kept or removed by a single expert or a panel of experts. The show is usually presented as a job search of some kind, in which the prize for the winner includes a contract to perform that kind of work and an undisclosed salary, although the award can simply be a sum of money and ancillary prizes, like a cover article in a magazine.
The show also features judges who act as counselors, mediators and sometimes mentors to help contestants develop their skills further or perhaps decide their future position in the competition. Popstars , which debuted in , may have been the first such show, while the Idol series has been the longest-running and, for most of its run, the most popular such franchise.
The first job-search show which showed dramatic, unscripted situations may have been America's Next Top Model , which premiered in May One notable subset, popular from approximately to , consisted of shows in which the winner gets a specific part in a known film, television show, musical or performing group. The most extreme prize for such a show may have been for one of the first such shows, 's Rock Star: Fortune , who won the show, went on to be INXS's lead singer until Some shows use the same format with celebrities: The most popular such shows have been the Dancing with the Stars and Dancing on Ice franchises.
Other examples of celebrity competition programs include Deadline , Celebracadabra and Celebrity Apprentice. Most of these programs create a sporting competition among athletes attempting to establish their name in that sport. The Club , in , was one of the first shows to immerse sport with reality television, based on a fabricated club competing against real clubs in the sport of Australian rules football ; the audience helped select which players played each week by voting for their favorites.
Golf Channel's The Big Break is a reality show in which aspiring golfers compete against one another and are eliminated. The Contender , a boxing show, became the first American reality show in which a contestant committed suicide after being eliminated from the show; the show's winner was promised a shot at a boxing world championship. Sergio Mora , who won, indeed got his title shot and became a world champion boxer. In The Ultimate Fighter , participants have voluntarily withdrawn or expressed the desire to withdraw from the show due to competitive pressure.
In sports shows, sometimes just appearing on the show, not necessarily winning, can get a contestant the job. Not all sports programs involve athletes trying to make a name in the sport. One concept pioneered by, and unique to, reality competition shows is the idea of immunity, in which a contestant can win the right to be exempt the next time contestants are eliminated from the show. Possibly the first instance of immunity in reality TV was on Survivor , which premiered in in Sweden as Expedition Robinson , before gaining international prominence after the American edition titled Survivor premiered in On that show, there are complex rules around immunity: They can also pass on their immunity to someone else and in the later case, they can keep their immunity secret from other players.
On most shows, immunity is quite a bit simpler: In one Apprentice episode, a participant chose to waive his earned immunity and was immediately "fired" by Donald Trump for giving up this powerful asset. The authenticity of reality television is often called into question by its detractors.
The genre's title of "reality" is often criticized as being inaccurate because of claims that the genre frequently includes elements such as premeditated scripting including a practice called " soft-scripting " , acting, urgings from behind-the-scenes crew to create specified situations of adversity and drama, and misleading editing.
It has often been described as "scripting without paper". In many cases, the entire premise of the show is a contrived one, based around a competition or another unusual situation. However, various shows have additionally been accused of using fakery in order to create more compelling television, such as having premeditated storylines and in some cases feeding participants lines of dialogue, focusing only on participants' most outlandish behavior, and altering events through editing and re-shoots.
Television shows that have been notably accused of, or admitted to, deception include The Real World ,    the U. Reality television's global successes has become, in the view of some analysts, an important political phenomenon. In some [ quantify ] authoritarian countries, reality-television voting has provided the first opportunity for many citizens to voted in any free and fair wide-scale "elections".
In addition, the frankness of the settings on some reality shows presents situations that are often taboo in certain conservative cultures, like Star Academy Arab World , which began airing in , and which shows male and female contestants living together. The show became popular in Arab countries, with around 18 million viewers,  partly because it was able to combine the excitement of reality television with a traditional, culturally relevant topic.
In India , in the summer of , coverage of the third season of Indian Idol focused on the breaking down of cultural and socioeconomic barriers as the public rallied around the show's top two contestants. The Chinese singing competition Super Girl a local imitation of Pop Idol has similarly been cited [ by whom? Super Girl has also been criticized by non-government commentators for creating seemingly impossible ideals that may be harmful to Chinese youth. In Indonesia , reality television shows have surpassed soap operas as the most-watched broadcast programs.
Reality television has also received criticism in Britain and the United States for its ideological relationship with surveillance societies and consumerism. Writing in the New York Times in , author Mark Andrejevic characterised the role of reality television in a post society as the normalisation of surveillance in participatory monitoring, the "logic of the emerging surveillance economy", and in the promise of a societal self-image that is contrived.
Reality television generally costs less to produce than scripted series. VH1 executive vice president Michael Hirschorn wrote in that the plots and subject matters on reality television are more authentic and more engaging than in scripted dramas, writing that scripted network television "remains dominated by variants on the police procedural The episodes have all the ritual predictability of Japanese Noh theater," while reality television is "the liveliest genre on the set right now.
It has engaged hot-button cultural issues — class, sex, race — that respectable television Television critic James Poniewozik wrote that reality shows like Deadliest Catch and Ice Road Truckers showcase working-class people of the kind that "used to be routine" on scripted network television, but that became a rarity in the s: Reality television has the potential to turn its participants into national celebrities , at least for a short period.
This is most notable in talent-search programs such as Idol and The X Factor , which have spawned music stars in many of the countries in which they have aired. Many other shows, however, have made at least temporary celebrities out of their participants; some participants have then been able to parlay this fame into media and merchandising careers. For example, Elisabeth Hasselbeck , a contestant on Survivor: Participants of non-talent-search programs who have had subsequent acting careers include Jacinda Barrett , Kristin Cavallari , Jamie Chung , Stephen Colletti , David Giuntoli , NeNe Leakes and Angela Trimbur ; though Barrett and Trimbur were already aspiring actresses when they appeared on reality television.
Several cast members of MTV's Jersey Shore had lucrative endorsement deals, and in some cases their own product lines, when the show aired and in subsequent years. Tiffany Pollard , originally a contestant on Flavor of Love , was eventually given four additional reality series of her own on VH1. In Britain, Jade Goody became famous after appearing on Big Brother 3 in ; she later appeared on other reality programs, wrote a bestselling autobiography and launched a top-selling perfume line. She later received extensive media coverage during her battle with cervical cancer , from which she died in Bethenny Frankel , who gained fame after appearing on several reality television shows, launched the successful brand Skinnygirl Cocktails, and got her own short-lived syndicated talk show, Bethenny.
Some reality-television alumni have parlayed their fame into paid public appearances. Several socialites , or children of famous parents, who were somewhat well known before they appeared on reality television shows have become much more famous as a result, including Paris Hilton , Nicole Richie , Kelly Osbourne , Kim Kardashian , and many of the rest of the Kardashian family.
Reality television personalities are sometimes derided as " Z-list celebrities", "Bravolebrities", or "nonebrities" who are effectively " famous for being famous " and have done nothing to warrant their sudden fame. Two international franchises, The Apprentice and Dragons' Den , are notable for having some of the business people who appeared there as judges and investors go on to win political office.
The prime example is U. In a rare case of a previously-unknown reality television alumnus succeeding in the political arena, The Real World: Boston cast member Sean Duffy is currently a U. In , four of the ten most popular programs among viewers under 17 were reality shows.
In , according to the Learning and Skills Council , one in seven UK teenagers hoped to gain fame by appearing on reality television. A number of studies have tried to pinpoint the appeal of reality television. A survey by Today. A number of fictional works since the s have contained elements similar to elements of reality television. They tended to be set in a dystopian future, with subjects being recorded against their will, and often involved violence.
A number of scripted television comedy and satire shows have adopted the format of the documentary-type reality television show, in " mockumentary " style.
Arguably the best-known and most influential "mockumentary" sitcom is the BBC's The Office , which spawned numerous international remakes, including a successful American version. Not all reality-television-style mockumentary series are comedic: The — American sketch comedy series Kroll Show set most of its sketches as excerpts from various fictional reality television shows, which one critic wrote "aren't far off from the lineups at E!
Kroll Show executive producer John Levenstein said in an interview that reality TV "has so many tools for telling stories in terms of text and flashbacks and ways to show things to the audience that it's incredibly convenient for comedy and storytelling if you use the full reality show toolkit. Some feature films have been produced that use some of the conventions of documentary film or reality television; such films are sometimes referred to as reality films , and sometimes simply as documentaries.
The television series Jackass has spawned a number of films, including Jackass: In , broadcaster Krishnan Guru-Murthy stated that reality television is "a firm and embedded part of television's vocabulary, used in every genre from game-shows and drama to news and current affairs. The mumblecore film genre, which began in the mids, and uses video cameras and relies heavily on improvisation and non-professional actors, has been described as influenced in part by what one critic called "the spring-break psychodrama of MTV's The Real World ".
Mumblecore director Joe Swanberg has said, "As annoying as reality TV is, it's been really good for filmmakers because it got mainstream audiences used to watching shaky camerawork and different kinds of situations. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Reality Show disambiguation. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Criticism of reality television and Scripted reality. Audiences and Popular Factual Television. Candid Camera and the origins of reality TV: In Holmes, and Jermyn, D. Stanley Milgram, Allen Funt and me: Retrieved May 8, Penguin Books, , p. At the end of the show, all of the contestants would say who they wanted to go out with again or fairly often, they'd say "none of these jackasses" and if there was a Tinder-style match the couple would usually hug and kiss and then interview that they were looking forward to seeing each other outside the show.
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While there was almost always one person left dateless, there were exceptions to this: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the s U. TV series of this name, see Blind Date s game show. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message.