Download Citation on ResearchGate | Dating Behaviors of University Students | Data on university students in a random sample revealed how students.
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- College and university dating
- Dating Behaviors of University Students
- Dating Behaviors of University Students
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Two hundred and thirty students were surveyed from two higher institutions in Nigeria over a 4-month period March to July , Significant differences in views were expressed between the younger and older age groups in situations that required family ties and dating relationships.
College and university dating
Differences in views were observed along marital status in situations that involved social closeness in conversations, dating, and maintaining friendly relationships with individuals with a history of sexual violence. Our study showed that although majority of college students were willing to maintain friendly relations with individuals with history of sexual violence, they were more socially distancing in situations that involved intimate and close family contacts.
There is a need to help bridge social distancing toward individuals who experienced sexual violence among college students in Lagos, Nigeria. At every stage of an intimate relationship, couples must deal with difficult and unsettling interpersonal problems. As a consequence, therapists often find themselves dealing with clients when the problems have become too difficult and too unsettling. The present study was designed to uncover basic factors that virgins perceive will influence them in their decision to engage in their first act of sexual intercourse.
An inventory of potential influences was administered to college students; the results were factor analyzed.
Dating Behaviors of University Students
Three anticipated influence factors emerged: Males and females differed on the anticipated influence of the relationship factor. Differences were also found in how salient the anticipated influence factors would be when first intercourse was expected to occur with casual dating in comparison to when first intercourse was expected to occur while seriously dating, engaged, or married.
A Process Model of Heterosexual Engagement. Using a constructionist framework, an alternative process model is offered. The five-process model captures the ongoing and fluid work couples perform to negotiate a redefinition of the relationship. Couples reflexively use a host of complex symbolic interaction including talk, rituals, relationships with others, testing, and use of time to construct their relationship in a new way.
By examining the underlying reality construction process, rather than merely looking at the outcome, the social processes and human actions that shape relationships are revealed. Women are more likely to be sexually victimized by their dating partners or acquaintances than by strangers. In part, unwanted sexual intercourse results from misinterpreted sexual consent. To address this problem, scholars and policy makers have focused on how sexual communication might be improved.
Dating Behaviors of University Students
This paper conceives of sexual consent as knowing and voluntary agreement to have sexual intercourse. To understand how sexual consent is attributed, we examine the relative impact of nonverbal, verbal, and contextual cues on perceptions of impaired judgment, coercion, consent, appropriateness of sexual intercourse, and rape. Our data indicate that verbal statements produce clearer perceptions of consent than do nonverbal actions.
Rarely do contextual cues cause linguistic cues to be discounted. Males and females differ significantly in their judgments of coercion and the appropriateness of sexual intercourse but do not differ significantly with regard to perceived consent or rape. Dating behaviors and sexual attitudes of Asian-American youth were examined in a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study in the context of adherence to Asian values, measured by the Asian Values Scale AVS.
In all, 31 Asian-American adolescents age years old from a Houston community center were interviewed regarding dating behaviors and sexual attitudes. Almost three-fourth of adolescents dated without parental knowledge. Compared with adolescents with the lowestAVS scores, those with the highestAVS scores were significantly more likely to date without parental knowledge and date longer before sex.
Many adolescents proceeded directly to single, steady, relationships. Parents permitted dating, as long as grades were maintained. Asian-American adolescents should be questioned about secret dating, sexual activity, and participation in other high-risk activities. Dating Roles and Reasons for Dating.
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An attempt was made to isolate and test a set of hypotheses which explain the relationship between the female's dating role and her reasons for dating. The primary explanatory variable was "stages of courtship. Premarital Sexual Experience among College Females, , , and This is a replica of studies of premarital coitus among colleges females done in and The findings in show a continued increase in the percentage of women having premarital sexual experiences at the stages of dating, going steady and engagement.
The objective of this study is to investigate differences between black and white college students' values concerning mate selection. The relative importance of 12 desired traits in a potential mate, divided equally into what are termed instrumental and expressive traits, is examined. The general conclusions are: A Framework for Analysis and an Illustration.
This paper suggests that if it is possible to ascertain individuals' primary motivation in dating, their degree of instrumental orientation, and their degree of emotional involvement; it will be possible to predict the likelihood of conflict occurring in their relationship, which partner is likely to control the relationship, and which partner is likely to experience the greater distress. It is further suggested that motivations in dating are affected by social variables, as are the actual choice of dating partners and the course of the dating relationship.
An illustrative dating situation is presented and analyzed in which the females' primary motivation in dating is courtship and the males' primary motivation is recreation. Creative singlehood as a sexual life-style: Be-yond marriage as a rite of passage Marriage and alternatives: Be-yond marriage as a rite of passage. The social context of premarital sexual permis-siveness Dating behavior: A frame-work for analysis and an illustration. The social context of premarital sexual permis-siveness. Journal of Mar-riage and the Family, , 28, J Delamater P Maccorquodale.
Most researchers use their institutional email address as their ResearchGate login. Keep me logged in. However, legal consideration and intervention programs targeting both married and unmarried young adults are required [ 4 ]. The Domestic Violence Prevention Act came into effect in Japan in , but this law covers only marriage partner violence and does not recognize IPV although it does address post-divorce partner violence.
In a study among pregnant Japanese women, experience of premarital pregnancy, frequent induced abortion, lack of condom use, and poor education were factors associated with seropositivity for Chlamydia trachomatis [ 5 ]. Physical violence by an intimate partner was associated with pregnancy, and verbal violence was associated with reduced condom use [ 6 ]. There have been no clear surveys regarding dating violence in Japan. College students in Japan who have had multiple sexual partners show a low likelihood of having used condoms [ 8 ]. This also suggests diversification of sexual behavior and an increase in number of casual sex partners among young people over the past two decades in Japan.
This was a cross-sectional study performed among freshmen students from two non-medical health faculties i. After obtaining informed consent, the participants completed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire.
If the study participants recognized the episodes listed in the questionnaire as their own experiences of harassment toward or receiving harassment from an intimate partner and agreed that they constituted harassment, they answered "yes. The questionnaire was prepared based on the booklet " Do you know about dating violence?
Pearson's correlation coefficient and logistic regression analysis were used to assess the association between perpetration and being a victim of harassment. In addition, logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate factors contributing to consultation-seeking behavior after receiving harassment. Before completing the questionnaire, all participants gave their informed consent to participation in the study after explanation about its objectives, confidentiality and ethical consideration, and assurance regarding the voluntary nature of participation.
The majority of study participants from non-medical health faculties included students from the Faculty of Engineering and Environmental Sciences, and consisted mainly of male students. The majority of study participants from medical health faculties included students from the Faculty of Nursing, and consisted mainly of female students.
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Number and percentages indicate the study participants who responded "yes" to each question. Fisher's exact test was performed. The most frequent type of harassment received by the participants was verbal harassment, followed by overanxiety regarding where they were and with whom, and free checking of their partner's cell phone records without permission from their partner. Female students were more likely to have checked the cell phone records of their partner without permission and of being afraid of their partner than male students.
Pearson's correlation coefficient between having at least one episode of perpetration of any type of harassment and being the victim of any type of harassment was 0. Most reported consulting with their friends 8 male students and 32 female students. Six female students sought help from their mother, 5 sought help from their sister, and one sought help from health personnel.
Only two male students sought help from their brother, and none sought help from parents after receiving harassment. None of the participants reported seeking help from a teacher, school nurse, or women's welfare consultation center that provides services of consultation and help for women with harassment and violence. Only one female victim reported that she had consulted with a medical health professional after harassment.
Seventy-eight participants 39 males and 39 females responded to the question s regarding the reason s why they did not seek any consultation or help as follows: A total of participants Among participants who had heard about dating violence, Cronbach's alpha for 21 possible episodes to evaluate recognition of harassment was 0.
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Numbers and percentages indicate the study participants who responded "no" to each question without and "yes" to each question with regarding recognition of attitude and behavior as harassment, abuse, or violence. The number of reports of having sexual relations against their will was not high, but there were instances of such cases. Almost half of the male participants did not recognize lack of collaboration in using contraception to protect against unwanted pregnancy and STIs or freely taking money from their girlfriend's purse as violence.
The participants with experience of harassment toward an intimate partner showed an association with experience of receiving harassment, and a higher rate of receiving harassment influenced seeking consultation or help. The results of the present study showed that most of the freshman students had appropriate knowledge allowing them to recognize harassment as IPV. However, male students were especially lacking in knowledge regarding safe sex with protection against unwanted pregnancy and STIs.
Lack of consideration of the outcomes of unprotected sexual relationships represents a type of violence. A study in the USA indicated that men reporting traditional ideologies were more likely to report unprotected vaginal intercourse and IPV toward their female partner [ 9 ], and men with experience of IPV toward their partner were more likely to show unhealthy and unprotected sexual behavior, such as forcing sexual intercourse and having multiple sexual partners [ 10 ]. However, evaluations performed to date have not demonstrated long-term effectiveness to reduce risks to adolescent sexual health [ 11 ].
To avoid unwanted outcomes from unprotected sexual relationships, comprehensive educational approaches in the early adolescent period are needed, for both male and female students. A previous study regarding IPV among young adults indicated that there is an interaction between perpetration and being a victim of harassment [ 12 , 13 ].
Reciprocal dating violence is common, which often leads to injury among adolescents [ 14 ]. There have been several discussions regarding high-risk behaviors, power balance in couples, and motivation and outcome of reciprocal and non-reciprocal dating violence among adolescents and youth [ 15 - 17 ]. The power balance in couples, depth of outcomes of harassment, and background of IPV should be examined in future studies. In addition, IPV was associated with limitation of partner's activities [ 19 , 20 ], and higher levels of risk behavior, such as antisocial or violent behavior, among adolescents [ 21 , 22 ].
Most of the participants did not recognize these types of harassment as violence. These results suggest that there is an association between ignorance and more severe violence among Japanese freshmen students. Violent relationships with intimate partners, including verbal violence and ignoring their partner, can result in the accumulation of severe violence and unfavorable outcomes, such as unwanted pregnancies and STIs. It is important to provide an opportunity for educational intervention with regard to intimate partner harassment and violence to protect and promote Japanese freshman students' health and rights in human relationships during the teenage period regardless of gender and faculty.
There present study had several limitations. Therefore, the results cannot be interpreted to determine causality. Second, data were collected by self-reporting about experiences of harassment. Therefore, the data were subject to recall bias and under-or overstatement, and so may deviate from reality. Future studies at the level of individual couples will yield a greater understanding of adolescent and youth dating violence. Third, the participants were recruited from a university located in the capital city of one prefecture in Japan.
The social norms and environment, including faculty and past exposure to educational programs regarding violence, may influence knowledge and information available, as well as judgment of harassment and violence. Therefore, the results cannot be taken as generally representative of Japanese youth. Although there were limitations, the present study afforded provided a better understanding regarding potential risks of harassment and violence among Japanese youth, and thus suggested a basis for possible interventions.
The number of educational programs regarding harassment and violence for Japanese youth has increased over the past decade. However, the results of the present study indicated that improvements are still necessary in awareness and understanding regarding harassment and violence among Japanese youth.
Educational programs dealing with harassment and violence prevention should be provided in early adolescence, and should include information regarding different types of harassment and violence, including physical, sexual, psychological, and economic violence, as well as protective measures, including appropriate behavior regarding seeking help in the event of becoming a victim. In addition, it is necessary to integrate formal and academic education at school and university and life skills programs to protect and promote the health of youth.
MO supervised planning and procedure of the study, was responsible for data analysis and wrote the manuscript. KO and HM contributed to conceptualization of the study and made revisions to the manuscript before submission. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The authors would like to thank all study participants.
We are also grateful to Nagasaki University for research funding. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online May