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Plentyoffish is a completely and hookup. In the Scottish Highlands, the traditional clan system was ended after the failed Rising of However, Ommer shows that the Scottish settlers reconstituted clan settlements in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, that persisted into the early 20th century. The clan system was tribal, involving an extended kin group that held land in common. Property was typically owned by the whole kinship group. In Scotland, clansmen rejected feudal claims of landlordship. The pioneers to Cape Breton sought out their own kin and settled alongside them.

Farms passed from one branch of a family to another through succeeding generations but continued to be occupied by members of the same clan. Clan members formed helped each other with communal barn raisings and shared labour and tools. The system made for survival and efficiency in a harsh pioneering environment.

The American Revolution — had a significant impact on shaping Nova Scotia. At the beginning, there was ambivalence in Nova Scotia, "the 14th American Colony" as some called it, over whether the colony should join the Americans in the war against Britain. A small number of Nova Scotians went south to serve with the Continental Army against the British; upon the completion of the war these supporters were granted land in the Refugee Tract in Ohio.

However the Nova Scotia government in Halifax was controlled by an Anglo-European mercantile elite [ who? Facing attacks which forced choices of loyalty, rebellion or neutrality, settlers outside Halifax experienced a religious revival that expressed some of their anxieties.


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In addition to capturing vessels either leaving or arriving at Nova Scotia ports, [44] American privateers made regular land raids, attacking Lunenburg , Annapolis Royal , Canso and Liverpool. By the end of the war a number of Nova Scotian privateers were outfitted to attack American shipping.


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  7. To guard against repeated American privateer attacks, the 84th Regiment of Foot Royal Highland Emigrants was garrisoned at forts around the Atlantic Canada to strengthen the small and ill-equipped militia companies of the colony. The British naval squadron based at Halifax was successful in deterring any American invasion, blocking American support for Nova Scotia rebels and launched some attacks on New England, such as the Battle of Machias However the Royal Navy was unable to establish naval supremacy.

    While many American privateers were captured in battles such as the Naval battle off Halifax , many more continued attacks on shipping and settlements until the final months of the war. The Royal Navy struggled to maintain British supply lines, defending convoys from American and in , after the Franco-American alliance against Great Britain , French attacks such as a fiercely fought convoy battle, the a naval engagement with a French fleet at Sydney, Nova Scotia , near Spanish River, Cape Breton.

    As the New England Planters and United Empire Loyalists began to arrive in Mi'kmaki the Maritimes in greater numbers, economic, environmental and cultural pressures were put on the Mi'kmaq with the erosion of the intent of the treaties. The Mi'kmaq tried to enforce the treaties through threat of force. These delegates did not officially represent the Mi'kmaq government, although many individual Mi'kmaq did privately join the Continental army as a result.

    John River expedition , Col. Allan's untiring effort to gain the friendship and support of the Maliseet and Mi'kmaq for the Revolution was somewhat successful. The party arrived at a very opportune moment for the Americans, and afforded material assistance in the defence of that post during the attack made by Sir George Collier on the 13th to 15 August.

    The British did only minimal damage to the place, and the services of the Indians on the occasion earned for them the thanks of the council of Massachusetts. The prisoners were eventually brought to Halifax, where they were later released upon signing the Oath of Allegiance to the British Crown on 28 July After the British were defeated in the Thirteen Colonies, some former Nova Scotian territory in Maine entered the control of the newly independent American state of Massachusetts.

    British troops from Nova Scotia helped evacuate approximately 30, United Empire Loyalists American Tories , who settled in Nova Scotia, with land grants by the Crown as some compensation for their losses. Of these, 14, went to present-day New Brunswick and in response the mainland portion of the Nova Scotia colony was separated and became the province of New Brunswick with Sir Thomas Carleton the first governor on August 16, The Loyalists exodus created new communities across Nova Scotia, including Shelburne , which was briefly one of the larger British settlements in North America, and infused the province with additional capital and skills.

    The Loyalist migration also caused political tensions between Loyalist leaders and the leaders of the existing New England Planters settlement. Some Loyalist leaders felt that the elected leaders in Nova Scotia represented a Yankee population which had been sympathetic to the American Revolutionary movement, and which disparaged the intensely anti-American, anti-republican attitudes of the Loyalists. This makes me much doubt their remaining long dependent. The Loyalist influx also created pressure for settlement land which pushed Nova Scotia's Mi'kmaq People to the margins as Loyalist land grants encroached on ill-defined native lands.

    Approximately 3, members of the Loyalist migration were Black Loyalists who founded the largest free Black settlement in North America at Birchtown , near Shelburne. However unfair treatment and harsh conditions caused about one-third of the Black Loyalists to combine forces with British abolitionists and the Committee for the Relief of the Black Poor to resettle in Sierra Leone.

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    Large numbers of Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots emigrated to Cape Breton and the western part of the mainland during the late 18th century and 19th century. While many blacks who arrived in Nova Scotia during the American Revolution were free, others were not. In , prior to the American Revolution, Britain outlawed the slave trade in the British Isles followed by the Knight v.

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    Wedderburn decision in Scotland in This decision, in turn, influenced the colony of Nova Scotia. In , abolitionist James Drummond MacGregor from Pictou published the first anti-slavery literature in Canada and began purchasing slaves' freedom and chastising his colleagues in the Presbyterian church who owned slaves. Led by Richard John Uniacke , in , and again on January 11, the Nova Scotian legislature refused to legalize slavery. By the end of the War of and the arrival of the Black Refugees, there were few slaves left in Nova Scotia. The French Revolutionary and later Napoleonic Wars at first created confusion and hardship as the fishery was disrupted and Nova Scotia's West Indies trade suffered severe French attacks.

    However, military spending in the strategic colony gradually led to increasing prosperity.

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    The maturing colony built new roads and lighthouses and in established a lifesaving station on Sable Island to deal with the many international shipwrecks on the island. The colony also contributed to the war effort by purchasing or building various privateer ships to seize American vessels. Other communities also joined the privateer campaign, including Annapolis Royal , Windsor , and in Lunenburg, Nova Scotia , three members of the town of purchased a privateer schooner and named it Lunenburg on August 8, Many of the prisoners were kept at Deadman's Island, Halifax.

    After the war, Maine was returned to America through the Treaty of Ghent. The British returned to Halifax and, with the spoils of war they had taken from Maine, they built Dalhousie University established There was also migration out of the colony because of the hardships immigrants faced. Working conditions in the Halifax Naval Yard during the — era included officials who took bribes from workers and widespread nepotism. The laborers endured poor working conditions and limited personal freedoms.

    Nova Scotia

    However, the laborers were willing to remain there for many years because wages were high and more steady than any alternative. Unlike almost any other jobs the yards paid disability benefits for men injured at work and gave retirement pensions to those who spent their career in the yards. Nova Scotia had one of the first labour organizations in what became Canada. By workers set up a Carpenters' Society at Halifax, and soon there were attempts at organization by other craftsmen and tradesmen. Businessmen complained, and in Nova Scotia passed an act against trade unions, the preamble of which declared that great numbers of master tradesmen, journeymen, and workmen in the town of Halifax and other parts of the province had, by unlawful meetings and combinations, endeavored to regulate the rate of wages and effectuate other illegal aims.

    Unions remained illegal until Nova Scotians fought in the Crimean War. It commemorates the Siege of Sevastopol — It was the first residential school for the blind in Canada. Nova Scotians also participated in the Indian Mutiny. The 78th Highlanders Regiment of Foot were famous for their involvement with the siege and were later posted to Citadel Hill Fort George. Nova Scotia was the first colony in British North America and in the British Empire to achieve responsible government in January—February and become self-governing through the efforts of Joseph Howe.

    Most joined Maine or Massachusetts infantry regiments, but one in ten served the Confederacy South. The total likely reached two thousand as many young men had migrated to the U. Pacifism, neutrality, anti-Americanism, and anti-"Yankee" sentiments all operated to keep the numbers down, but on the other hand, there were strong cash incentives to join the well-paid Northern army and the long tradition of emigrating out of Nova Scotia, combined with a zest for adventure, attracted many young men.

    There were no attempts to trade with the Confederacy. Nova Scotia was the site of two minor international incidents during the war: The war left many fearful that the North might attempt to annex British North America , particularly after the Fenian raids began. In response, volunteer regiments were raised across Nova Scotia. One of the main reasons why Britain sanctioned the creation of Canada was to avoid another possible conflict with America and to leave the defence of Nova Scotia to a Canadian government. Premier Charles Tupper had worked energetically to bring about the union.

    But it was controversial because localism, Protestant fears of Catholics and distrust of Canadians generally, and worries about losing free trade with America, were all intensified by the refusal of Tupper to consult Nova Scotia's voters on the subject. A movement for withdrawal from Canada developed, led by Joseph Howe. Howe's Anti-Confederation Party swept the next election, on September 18, , winning 18 out of 19 federal seats, and 36 out of 38 seats in the provincial legislature.

    A motion passed by the Nova Scotia House of Assembly in refusing to recognise the legitimacy of Confederation has never been rescinded. With the great Hants County bi-election of , Howe was successful in turning the province away from appealing confederation to simply seeking "better terms" within it. Howe did succeed in getting better financial terms for the province, and gained a national office for himself. Long-term adverse factors came into play. In came the end of the American Civil War and all the extra business it had generated.

    In came the end of Canadian-American Reciprocity Treaty , which led to higher and damaging American tariffs on goods imported from Nova Scotia. In the long run the transition at sea from wood-wind-water sailing to steel steamships undercut the advantages Nova Scotia had enjoyed before Many residents for decades grumbled that Confederation had slowed the economic progress of the province and it lagged other parts of Canada. Repeal, as anti-confederation became known, would rear its head again in the s, and transform into the Maritime Rights Movement in the s.

    Some Nova Scotia flags flew at half mast on Dominion Day as late as that time. Throughout the nineteenth century, there were numerous businesses that were developed in Nova Scotia that became of national and international importance: Most people were farmers and agriculture dominated the economy, despite all the attention given to ships. The rural situation peaked in in terms of total rural population, farmland, grain production, cattle production, and number of farms, then fell steadily into the 21st century.

    Apples and dairy products resisted the downward trend in the 20th century. The pattern of Nova Scotia's trade and tariffs between and suggests that the colony was already moving toward free trade before the Reciprocity Treaty of with the U. The treaty produced modest additional direct gains. The Reciprocity Treaty complemented the earlier movement toward free trade and stimulated the export of commodities sold primarily to the United States, especially coal. Halifax was the home of Samuel Cunard.


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    With his father, Abraham, a master ship's carpenter, he founded the A. Samuel parlayed his father's modest waterfront properties into a succession of businesses that revolutionized transatlantic shipping and passenger travel with the introduction of steam and steel. Cunard was a booster who was active in philanthropy and helped found the Chamber of Commerce, where he found business partners for his ventures in banking, mining, and other businesses.

    In the process he became one of the largest landholders in the Maritime Provinces. John Fitzwilliam Stairs — , scion of the powerful Stairs family, enlarged the family's multiple businesses by merging the cordage firms and sugar refineries and then creating the steel industry in the province.

    In order to develop new regional sources of capital, Stairs became an innovator in building legal and regulatory frameworks for these new forms of financial structure. Frost contrasts Stairs's success in promoting regional development with the obstacles that he had encountered in promoting regional interests, particularly at the federal level. The family finally sold its businesses in , after years. After Confederation, boosters of Halifax expected federal help to make the city's natural harbor Canada's official winter port and a gateway for trade with Europe.

    Halifax's advantages included its location just off the Great Circle route made it the closest to Europe of any mainland North American port.

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    But the new Intercolonial Railway ICR took an indirect, southerly route for military and political reasons, and the national government made little effort to promote Halifax as Canada's winter port. Ignoring appeals to nationalism and the ICR's own attempts to promote traffic to Halifax, most Canadian exporters sent their wares by train though Boston or Portland.

    No one was interested in financing the large-scale port facilities Halifax lacked. Unionization, legal after , was based on skilled crafts except in the coal mines and steel plants, where unskilled men could also join. There has been an increase in industrial unionism with the expansion of industry.

    International unionism with a strong American influence became important, as international unions began in , when a local of the International Typographical Union was chartered in Halifax. In the woodworking trades started their union. Different unions banded together to support strike action, as seen in the organization of the Amalgamated Trade Unions of Halifax in , which was succeeded by the Halifax District Trades and Labour Council in By the end of the 19th century there were more than 70 local unions in the province.

    Nova Scotia became a world leader in both building and owning wooden sailing ships in the second half of the century. Notable ships included the barque Stag , a clipper renowned for speed and the ship William D. Lawrence , the largest wooden ship ever built in Canada. Mariners such a Capt. George "Rudder" Churchill of Yarmouth became famous for their voyages.

    The province also produced a notable 19th-century female mariner, Bessie Hall from Annapolis Royal. The most famous of the sailors from Nova Scotia was Joshua Slocum who became the first man to sail single-handedly around the world Competition from steamships in the late 19th century ended the Golden Age of Sail, although the legacy continued to inspire mariners and the public into the following century with the many racing victories of the Bluenose schooner.

    The population grew steadily from , in to , in , mostly from natural increase since immigration was slight.

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    The era is often called the province's golden age due to the economic growth, growth of towns and villages, maturing of business and institutions and the success of industries like shipbuilding. The idea of a past golden age came to prominence in the early 20th century by economic reformers in the Maritime Rights Movement and was exploited by the tourism industry in the s to lure tourists to a romantic era of tall ships and antiques.